Chef Emanuel Wollz: do glúten à lactose, as vantagens de uma dieta sem eles

O glúten é uma proteína encontrada no trigo, na aveia, na cevada, no malte, no centeio e em seus derivados, como pães, massas, bolachas, cerveja, uísque e em uma infinidade de produtos industrializados.

O que muita gente não sabe é que, apesar de estar presente na maioria dos alimentos, o glúten é protagonista da doença celíaca – que é a intolerância à substância – surpreendentemente comum.

Segundo a Federação Nacional das Associações de Celíacos do Brasil, não há um número oficial sobre os portadores da doença no país, mas uma pesquisa publicada em 2005 pela Universidade Federal de São Paulo apontou que há um celíaco a cada 214 moradores de São Paulo. Nos Estados Unidos a doença afeta, em média, uma a cada 133 pessoas, de acordo com um estudo realizado em 2003 no Centro de Pesquisas Celíacas da Universidade de “MARYLAND (EUA)”. 

Ingerir comidas que contenham essa substância pode ser o gatilho para reações desagradáveis: diarreia, dor abdominal, inchaço, danos ao intestino delgado, problemas na absorção dos nutrientes, anemia e fadiga. 

Como tratar o problema? 

O único jeito é adotar uma dieta livre de glúten para o resto da vida.

Vantagens de uma dieta sem glúten: 

Não é só o celíaco que se beneficia ao não ingerir produtos que contenham glúten. Pesquisas sugerem que a ingestão frequente de grandes quantidades da proteína por pessoas hipersensíveis afeta a função normal do cérebro e pode causar sintomas imunológicos e intestinais.

No caso do glúten, um grande número de pessoas observa que os sintomas são atenuados e até desaparecem com a retirada do alimento alergênico. 

Daí a proposta de uma dieta sem glúten para pessoas que não são celíacas, para verificar se a exclusão do glúten da alimentação proporciona melhoria nos sinais e sintomas apresentados.

Vale lembrar que não é uma dieta com a finalidade da perda de peso, mas que o mesmo pode acontecer devido ao melhor funcionamento do organismo sem a exposição ao alimento alergênico – esclarece os nutricionistas.

O glúten não é um nutriente essencial para a saúde e a sua retirada da dieta não causa prejuízos, o que gerou um aumento na procura por alimentos sem glúten nas prateleiras.

O que é lactose? 

A lactose é um hidrato de carbono, mais especificamente um dissacarídeo que é composto por dois monossacarídeos: a glicose e a galactose. 

A lactose é o único hidrato de carbono do leite e é exclusiva desse alimento, porque apenas é produzida nas glândulas mamárias dos mamíferos: no leite humano representa cerca de 7,2% e no leite de vaca cerca de 4,7%.

Para ser absorvida, a lactose tem de ser dividida em glicose e galactose e, por isso, todos os mamíferos produzem uma enzima que tem essa função – a lactase.

A intolerância à lactose refere-se aos sintomas decorrentes da presença de lactose mal digerida no intestino. Para digerirmos a lactose necessitamos de uma enzima – a lactase – que tem a função de dividir a lactose nos seus componentes mais simples (glicose e galactose), permitindo a sua absorção para a corrente sanguínea.

Quando o organismo não produz lactase suficiente (hipolactasia ou deficiência da lactase), a lactose permanece “inteira” no intestino, podendo causar sintomas de desconforto abdominal com dor, diarreia, náuseas, flatulência e/ou inchaço abdominal.

A deficiência da lactase raramente é total, por isso os que têm uma digestão limitada da lactose podem ou não manifestar os sintomas da intolerância.

Para ser absorvida, a lactose precisa de ser hidrolisada no intestino por uma enzima específica – a lactase. Está hidrólise não é mais do que a separação da lactase em componentes menores: a glicose e a galactose. Este são absorvidos diretamente para a corrente sanguínea e desempenham papéis distintos no organismo: a glicose é utilizada como fonte de energia e a galactose torna-se um componente de glicolipídios e glicoproteínas.

Se a lactose não for digerida – separada nos seus componentes – permanece inteira no intestino sem ser absorvida para a corrente sanguínea, o que pode provocar a drenagem de água para o lúmen intestinal, que por sua vez resulta em diarreia. Simultaneamente, a lactose inteira e fermentada por bactérias da flora intestinal que produzem gases e ácidos orgânicos, podendo gerar sintomas de dor, inchaço e flatulência. 

“Eliminar o glúten da dieta provoca a redução no grau de inflamação do organismo”.

“A dieta sem lactose auxilia o bom funcionamento do intestino em pessoas com intolerância e evita os sintomas causados pela ingestão da mesma”.

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