Flávia Correia: 'O belo canto'

A cantora Cecilia Bartoli- Créditos do google image.

O bel canto é um termo italiano que significa belo canto.  Essa técnica vocal nasceu no início do século XVII e teve o ápice do seu desenvolvimento no século XIX. Trazendo padrões estéticos vocais que até hoje são utilizados no canto lírico.

Para um intérprete do bel canto é preciso ter anos de treinos para adquirir o exigido nesse estilo: o domínio completo sobre a intensidade vocal, controle da agilidade vocal, clara articulação das notas e uma impecável enunciação das palavras. A beleza da voz e a estética são características marcantes do belo canto.

Fato interessante é que até 1850 o bel canto não era reconhecido como uma escola de canto pois estava em desenvolvimento. Apenas tinha uma referência por parte dos compositores como “uma maneira de se cantar usada desde 1830”.

Nesse período surge uma figura de características marcantes: Os castrati. O castrato era um homem com o timbre vocal feminino (soprano, mezzo-soprano ou contralto). E para que esse cantor tivesse uma voz feminina ele deveria ser castrado antes do período da puberdade e por esse motivo levariam esse timbre peculiar por toda a vida. Um filme interessante de assistir sobre a vida do castrado mais famoso e bem pago da Europa é Farinelli, de Gerárd Corbiau. 

Obviamente hoje em dia não existe mais a castração de cantores. Mas existem vozes masculinas peculiares, que com muita técnica conseguem reproduzir o timbre de um contralto, mezzo-soprano e até mesmo o soprano. São os contra tenores e sopranistas.

Os compositores mais conhecidos da escola belcanista são: Vicenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti e Gioachino Rossini.

Enquanto a Itália amava esse estilo vocal os franceses não simpatizavam. Pois achavam que era muita firula no modo de cantar.

Filme Farinelli- Créditos do google image.

Os anos se passaram e a música foi se reformulando e o bel canto teve o seu fim. Os últimos anos do século XIX surgiram os compositores Verdi,Puccini e Wagner que trouxeram uma nova roupagem para o mundo da ópera.

 Mas, nos anos 50 tivemos um “revival” do belo canto. Houve por fim um resgate desse estilo. 

Maria Callas com sua técnica fenomenal trouxe de volta aos palcos obras como Anna Bolena de Donizetti e Arminda, de Rossini.  

E quem continuou o movimento nos anos 60 e 70 foram Joan Sutherland, Montserrat Caballé, Leyla Gence, Renata Scotto, Teresa Berganza e outras.

Atualmente temos duas grandes cantoras belcanistas que devemos parar para escutar: Cecilia Bartoli e Joyce DiDonato. Elas são mezzo-sopranos e dão um show de técnica e virtuosismo.

Algumas das óperas mais famosas e encenadas do bel canto são: NormaLa sonnambula e I puritani, de BelliniLucia di LammermoorL’Elisir d’Amore e Don Pasquale, de Donizetti; e O Barbeiro de Sevilha e La Cenerentola, de Rossini.

Graças a esse resgate ainda hoje podemos apreciar essa beleza vocal, pois o estilo foi repopularizado, abrangendo toda a Europa e América.

A cantora Joyce DiDonato interpretando La Cenerentola- Crédito: Site Financial Times.
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