Frederico Maroja: Qual é o 'sonho brasileiro'?

De “país do futuro”, o Brasil se tornou “uma nação que não deu certo”. A construção da sociedade brasileira é marcada por profundas desigualdades e injustiças econômico-sociais, sendo incomum a reflexão sobre a liberdade e a sua dimensão na vida dos cidadãos. 

Para o filósofo Aristóteles: “a liberdade é a capacidade de decidir-se a si mesmo para um determinado agir ou sua omissão”. A liberdade e suas implicações ganharam múltiplos contornos e significados ao longo do tempo. 

De um modo geral, a liberdade é o exercício da autonomia no processo de escolha, considerando as opções existentes. Logo, se o cidadão não tem opções, se trata de uma imposição. 

Pois bem, ao folhear rapidamente a história, é possível constatar que a luta de independência dos povos exigiu uma compreensão prévia do que era liberdade. Assim, a liberdade situa-se em três dimensões: a idealização, a conquista e a concretização. 

A Liberdade guiando o povo (em francês: La Liberté guidant le peuple) por Eugène Delacroix - Erich Lessing Culture and Fine Arts Archives via artsy.net, Domínio público, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27539198

Um dos símbolos mais populares da liberdade é o monumento famoso nos Estados Unidos da América, conhecido como “estátua da liberdade”, ou “Miss Liberty”, cujo nome oficial é “A Liberdade Iluminando o Mundo, sob os pés encontra-se a corrente quebrada. 

Por William Warby - https://www.flickr.com/photos/wwarby/2229938017, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=39458357

Na perspectiva norte-americana a liberdade está associada à possibilidade de sucesso, prosperidade e mobilidade social, através de estímulos ao empreendedorismo e reconhecimento do mérito. O “sonho americano” se tornou o padrão moral daquele país. 

Muito embora a nossa Constituição Federal preveja em seu artigo 5o os direitos fundamentais, dentre os quais, o da liberdade, a cobiça desenfreada existente em quase todos os seguimentos da sociedade impede a concretização do projeto constitucional. 

De acordo com o entendimento enraizado no Brasil, a liberdade é passível de negociação, talvez porque de certa forma, o passado ainda se faz presente, com a comercialização e eventuais alforrias. 

Recibo de venda da escrava nagô Francisca a Maria Antônia Teixeira. Por Arquivo Nacional, Domínio público, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6937 7861

Note-se que, segundo o filósofo Thomas Hobbes, no “estado de natureza” os homens podem todas as coisas, e, assim, utilizam-se de todos os meios para atingi-las, inclusive com o poder de violência ilimitado. Em sua obra “Leviatã” aponta a necessidade de um estado absolutista, cruel e violento para combater o “homem mau”. 

A busca era por minimizar revoltas, e assim, manter a relação de poder e privilégios. Existe “um poder atrás do poder” [Frank Underwood (Kevin Spacey) na série de “House of Cards”]

A “governança de Mamon” compreende a liderança, estratégia e controle visando práticas corruptas e desonestas que empobrecem o Brasil, ocasionando a péssima qualidade de vida e seu elevado custo. Como símbolo, Mamon é a personificação da ganância, entidade que suborna os homens para obter suas almas. 

Por Louis Le Breton - https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5754923d/f449.image; http://www.whiterosesgarden.com/Nature_of_Evil/fallen_a ngels/FAngels_M/mammon.htm, Domínio público, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=98717 7

 Aceitar o “ouro de tolo” não proporciona liberdade, ao contrário, perpetuam a escravidão e o sistema de subornos, que atrapalham o desenvolvimento do país. 

Não cumprir com a palavra, buscar tratamento diferenciado, obter vantagens ilícitas são condutas inseridas na moralidade, compõe um modo de agir coletivo. 

Se há vantagem na burla às leis, as pessoas vão burlar. Quanto maior for o emaranhado confuso de normas e leis, maior será o incentivo para descumpri- las. 

A conduta moral pressupõe uma aceitação da sociedade, mas nem sempre está acompanhada pela ética, isso significa que, existem normas morais não éticas, e a burla de normas jurídicas é apenas uma consequência. 

Com isso, os indivíduos podem ser classificados de acordo com a concentração do poder: 

  1. i) “pré-cidadão” – direitos e deveres parciais; ii) “cidadão” – direitos e deveres; iii) “pós-cidadão” – direitos especiais e deveres imparciais. 

Esse desequilíbrio causa dependência, onde quem possui menos liberdade depende da vontade de quem concentra tal poder, ou seja, quem exerce o poder dita as regras morais, exigindo muitas vezes a conduta ilícita para atendimento desse “dever moral”, como uma moeda de troca. 

A liberdade decorre da necessidade de desenvolvimento, que por sua vez depende da reflexão da moralidade existente, de modo que o conhecimento e participação da inteligência coletiva proporcionam o sentimento de adesão ao progresso almejado. 

Sem o exercício da liberdade não há igualdade, nem justiça. 

Diante do cenário existente, o Brasil necessita de movimento intelectual e cultural organizado, para conquistar a liberdade, proporcionando o amplo debate e a acessibilidade ao conhecimento. 

Assim, devemos nos indagar: qual é o “sonho brasileiro”? 

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69 Comentários

  • Parabéns meu amigo! Sempre soube do seu potencial,porém se supera cada vez mais.
    Excelente trabalho.
    Orgulho de você,para mim como um filho.
    Terei imenso prazer em acompanhar sua revista. Fiquei inebriada pelo seu trabalho.
    Sucesso sempre. Deus te abençoe . Bjs

  • Ótimo artigo! Leitura construtiva, leve e dinâmica! Parabéns a quem escreveu! 👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻

    • Muito bem colocado! Fez eu lembrar da música dos Paralamas/Titanas “Comida”.

  • Concordo…só lamento que, ha muitos anos,nenhum governo vê a educação como ferramenta necessaria e fundamental para um país crescer, se desenvolver….assim, quanto menos educacao e menos consciência de brasilidade, melhor para os que se imaginam “donos” deste país…QUE PENA !!

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