Flavio Santos: 'Orfeão Português, o amansador de feras'

O Malho. Directoria do Recreio Dramático da Juventude Portugueza. 18/12/1915. Ed. 692;

Cantando espalharei por toda a parte”

Os feitos da colônia portuguesa no Brasil são inesgotáveis. É uma história esquecida, diminuída, em alguns casos, intencionalmente. Pior, foi posta à parte, desvinculada, como se não fosse uma coisa nossa, brasileira, sobretudo a contribuição artística.

O canto orfeônico, canto coletivo amador, é uma tradição não tão antiga, “apenas” do início do século XIX, francesa e originalmente pensada como de caráter civilizacional e educativo. Pois a prática emprestou o nome à instituição. No Brasil, o canto coral remonta ao início do século passado, tornando-se obrigatória nas escolas secundárias na década de 30.

Mais uma vez o pioneirismo dos portugueses no Brasil se fez presente, quando um grupo de moços da cidade do Rio de Janeiro (José Augusto Correia Varella, Antônio Rodrigues da Costa, Ascenso Gomes Pereira e outros) fundou um grupo de arte dramática no dia 25 de julho de 1915. A agremiação chamava-se “Recreio Dramático da Juventude Portugueza”. A festa inaugural foi no dia 21 de agosto de 1915, em homenagem ao colaborador Sr. Salvador Santos, animada por danças e leitura de poesia, na rua Uruguaiana, número 107, onde se estabeleceu provisoriamente.

Gazeta de Notícias. A comissão portuguesa Pró-Pátria. 22/3/1916. Ed. n.o 82;

Já no primeiro ano de funcionamento, em setembro, a instituição montava um espetáculo no palco do Gymnastico Portuguez do Rio de Janeiro. Era a representação, pela 1.a vez no Brasil, de “O Fado”, do escritor e dramaturgo Bento Mântua, estreada em março do mesmo ano no Teatro São Carlos, de Lisboa. Dois meses depois, já organizava outro espetáculo no palco do Theatro do Centro Gallego, na rua da Constituição, número 30, no Rio. Festival que foi elogiado pelo jornal de Theatro e Sport do Rio de Janeiro, pelo desempenho dos artistas.

Mais tarde, em 1916, o sr. Benjamin da Costa Dias (novo sócio) sugeriu transformar esse grupo em orfeão, uma sociedade (ou escola) dedicada ao canto coral de vozes masculinas e propôs o novo nome: o Orpheon-Club Juventude Portugueza.

O clube seguiu o roteiro das instituições portuguesas no Rio de Janeiro: abertura com grande número inscrições de sócios portugueses e brasileiros, festas em homenagens aos santos de devoção, os almoços com mesa farta e os quitutes luso-brasileiros, as quermesses, as danças típicas, a organização dos passeios, a preocupação com os pobres, com os patrícios, com a política portuguesa e brasileira. Nunca se omitindo! Enfim, funcionando muito além da atividade-fim, como casa de cultura, esporte, lazer e solidariedade.

Revista Illustração Moderna. O coro do Orfeão. 11/4/1925. Ed. n.o 45;

Consta que a primeira apresentação de grupos folclóricos portugueses no Brasil (do Rancho Folclórico da Casa, de Viana do Castelo) foi nas dependências do Orfeão, no dia 13 de Julho de 1925. Improvável.

Em 1934, o Orpheon Portuguez do Rio de Janeiro recebeu a Ordem do Mérito do governo português, seguido do grau de Comendador da Ordem de Benemerência em 1938.

Na década de trinta e quarenta, com a sede na rua dos Andradas, número 59, as reuniões e bailes eram animados. Em depoimento à revista O Cruzeiro, em 1964, o colunista de jornal, Ibrahim Sued, disse que começou (de leve…) sua vida social no Orfeão e que tinha saudades da gente “simples e sincera” do clube. A TV Tupi do Rio de Janeiro, 1964, chegou a televisionar alguns bailes animados de Carnaval do Orfeão.

Segundo o jornal Última Hora de janeiro de 1965, a diretoria assinou a escritura de compra e venda de um imóvel para construção da nova sede, no bairro do Maracanã (bairro de Aldeia Campista?), na zona norte do Rio, no dia 29 do mesmo mês, conquista do então presidente Sr. Manuel Francisco. Foi lançada a pedra fundamental da nova sede social do clube, no número 363 da rua de São Francisco Xavier, no dia 12 de dezembro de 1965, um domingo.

Revista Beira-Mar. Reunião no Salão Nobre do Orfeão. 15/8/1942. Ed.734.

Quantas gerações de cariocas e brasileiros (visto que o atual edifício-sede fica nos arredores do estádio – e ponto turístico – do Maracanã) passaram em frente aos portões do Orfeão do Português se perguntando sobre sua história? Eu fui um deles. Por coincidência, este artigo foi escrito às vésperas do 105.o aniversário da instituição. Parabéns! Não sabemos se o clube continua com a antiga pujança, mas desejamos que o orphéon, o canto Orfeu continue amansando as feras!

O presidente Manoel Duarte entre os membros do Orpheon Portuguez. 8/9/1928. Ed. n.o 1356;

Bibliografia:

Giliolo, Renato de Sousa Porto. “Civilizando” pela música: a pedagogia do canto orfeônico na escola paulista da Primeira República (1910-1930). São Paulo,SP: Faculdade de Educação, USP, 2003;

Martins, Ismênia de Lima. Org. Portugueses no Brasil: migrantes em dois atos. Niterói, RJ: Muiraquitã, 2006.

Lemos, Wilson. O Ensino do Canto Orfeônico na Escola Secundária Brasileira (Décadas de 1930 e 1940). Revista HISTEDBR On-line, Campinas, n.42, p. 279-295, jun-2011.

Lopes, Milton. Memória Anarquista do Centro Galego do Rio de Janeiro (1903-1922). Núcleo de Pesquisa Marques da Costa.

Cardoso, Ciro Flamarion e Araujo, Paulo Henrique. Río de Janeiro. Madri: Fundacíon MAPFRE America, 1992.

Fontes:

Periódicos:

Correio da Manha. Coluna: Sociaes. 19/9/1915. Ed. n.o 6051; Nova Sede. 14/12/1965. Ed. 22299;

Crítica. Utilidade Pública. Veto. 29/12/1929. Ed. n.o 348;

Diário de Notícias. Seára Recreativa. Ordem do Mérito.13/10/1934. Ed.2400;

Gazeta de Notícias. Pelos Clubs. 23/8/1915. Ed. n.o 235; Portugal na Grande Guerra. 22/3/1916. Ed, n.o 82;

A Maça. Terremoto na Ilha do Fayal. 2/10/1926. Ed. n.o 243;

O Malho. Portugal na Guerra. 18/12/1915. Ed. n.o 692; Manoel Duarte. 8/9/1928. Ed. n.o 1356; Grau de Comendador. 24/11/1938. Ed. n.o 286;

O Paiz. Portugal em Guerra com a Allemanha. 21/3/1916. Ed. n.o 11488; Secção Portugueza. O Orpheon-Club Juventude Portugueza. 18/10/1916. Ed. n.o 11699;

Jornal do Commercio. 21/3/1916. Edição da Tarde, n.o 1971; Rua dos Andradas. 11/8/1940. Ed. 265;

Jornal do Theatro & Sport. Theatro de Amadores. 11/9/1915. Ed. n.o 47; 13/11/1915. E.d. n.o 56;

O Imparcial. Portugal em Guerra. 18/3/1916. Ed, n.o 1171;

Revista O Cruzeiro. Ibrahim Sued. 10/10/1964. Ed.n.o 1;

A Rua. Scenas e Telas. 29/6/1923. Ed. n.o 143;

Ultima Hora. Sede Maracanã. Nos Clubes. 19/01/1965. Ed. n.o 1474.

Artigos:

Lopes, Igor. Orfeão Português: história centenária celebrada no Rio. No site: mundolusiada.com.br.

 

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