Flávia Correia: 'O cantor castrado'

O cantor  Farinelli. Crédito: Google image

Castrado (em italiano “castrato”) era um cantor cuja extensão vocal correspondia as vozes femininas do contralto, mezzo-soprano e soprano. Esses cantores passavam pela castração antes do período da puberdade, pois, inibindo os hormônios sexuais, a laringe não iria crescer e sendo assim eles poderiam ter um timbre feminino por toda a vida. E claro que os treinos e a experiência musical abrilhantavam mais ainda sua voz.

A prática da castração de jovens cantores data de 400 d.C, em Constantinopla, durante o império Bizantino. Por volta do século IX, os cantores eunucos eram bem conhecidos, mas essa prática terminou por volta de 1204.

Os castrati reapareceram na Itália no século XVI, devido à necessidade de vozes agudas nos coros das igrejas. Em 1589, o papa Sisto V aprovou formalmente o recrutamento de castrados para o coro da Basílica de São Pedro.

No mundo da ópera esta prática teve seu auge nos séculos XVII e XVIII. O papel de herói era escrito para o castrado, como por exemplo nas obras de Handel. Atualmente esses papéis são desempenhados por cantoras ou por contratenores.

O último cantor castrado. Alessandro Moreschi. Crédito: site https://artmusiclounge.wordpress.com/ 

Mas você deve estar se perguntando o porquê de tanta crueldade, não é mesmo? 

Pois bem, os rapazes alvos dessa prática eram crianças órfãs ou abandonadas pelos pais. Tinham também aqueles oriundos de famílias pobres que eram entregues para castração. 

Em 1902, o papa Leão XII proibiu definitivamente a utilização de castrados nos coros da igreja. O último castrato a abandonar o coro da Capela Sistina foi Alessandro Moreschi,em 1903. É possível ter acesso a sua gravação no YouTube.

Carlo Maria Michelangelo Nicola Broschi, mais conhecido como Farinelli, foi o cantor castrado mais famoso de toda a Europa.

Ele começou a carreira ao lado do irmão, o pianista Ricardo Broschi. Era um galã, porém de olhar triste e solitário. Você pode conferir o filme Farinelli, de Gerárd Corbiau, para saber de mais detalhes. 

Sua fama não foi à toa. Sua extensão vocal era algo extraordinário! Ele alcançava 3.4 oitavas, do Lá 2 até o Ré 6 e tinha a capacidade de sustentar 150 notas em um só fôlego.

Encerrou sua carreira como cantor exclusivo do rei Felipe V da Espanha, que o contratou porque o seu canto era o único remédio que o tirava da depressão.

De fato, a música acalenta o nosso espírito, mas ao meu ver esses cantores sofreram e pagaram um preço muito alto para tamanha fama e prestígio. 

Cena do filme Farinelli. Crédito: Google image
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