André Conrado apresenta São Paulo - A Grande Metrópole

Pátio da Igreja e Convento do Colégio (atual Pátio do Colégio) 1862 Militão Azevedo

Mergulhando novamente em nossa rica história, aterrizamos agora na grande metrópole, São Paulo.

No dia 22 de janeiro do ano de 1532, teve início a colonização oficial (por Martim Afonso de Souza) da localidade,  que hoje conhecemos como São Paulo. Com a fundação da mais antiga vila do Brasil: Vila de São Vicente. Em 1554, os jesuítas (dentre os quais estavam o padre José de Anchieta e Manoel da Nóbrega), depois de subir a serra, decidem construir um colégio onde, além de alfabetizar, também catequizariam índios, no alto de uma colina na região de Piratininga. A cidade de São Paulo cresceu ao redor do colégio.

Pintura de Benedito Calixto Vila Igreja e Convento dos Jesuitas 1560

A partir do século XVII, têm início as bandeiras (ou entradas) cujo objetivo era a captura de índios, a expansão territorial e, principalmente, a descoberta de ouro e pedras preciosas. No final deste século, os bandeirantes do estado de São Paulo encontram ouro nos arredores de São João Del Rei.

Colégio e Igreja Sp - Sec XVIII- IMS

A independência do Brasil é proclamada por D. Pedro I em solo paulistano, no dia 7 de setembro de 1822.

D Pedro I Independência
D Maria Carolina Leopoldina Habsburgo Lorena e Bragança - IMS

Em 1817, tem início o ciclo do café com a fundação da primeira fazenda no vale do rio Paraíba do Sul. A mão-de-obra utilizada na cafeicultura era a escrava. Esta atividade econômica fez surgir uma oligarquia rural e propiciou o enriquecimento de diversas cidades do vale do Paraíba do Sul, dentre elas: Lorena, Pindamonhangaba e Guaratinguetá. A fim de escoar os grãos de café do interior do estado para Santos, é criada, em 1867, a São Paulo Railway (a primeira ferrovia paulista). Com a abolição da escravatura, em 1888, e o enriquecimento da região, começam a chegar os imigrantes (italianos, espanhóis, árabes, japoneses, etc.).

Casal Real

A partir de 1900 (e até 1970) uma empresa canadense chamada Light passa a administrar a geração de energia elétrica, fato que alavancou um grande desenvolvimento industrial e econômico. No início do século XX, a oligarquia cafeeira viveu seu apogeu, que foi interrompido pela Revolução de 1930 (liderada pelo Rio Grande do Sul). As elites paulistas promovem a Revolução constitucionalista, em 1932 e, apesar de todo o dinheiro que possuíam, são derrotadas. Após a Revolução de 1930, o país passou por um período de instabilidade que favoreceu a implantação da ditadura de Getúlio Vargas. A ditadura do Presidente gaúcho terminou junto com a Segunda Guerra Mundial. Devido aos bons preços que o café atingiu durante a guerra, o estado de São Paulo se recuperou.

Getúlio Vargas- Arquivo Nacional

Em 1950, chega a indústria automobilística a São Paulo (ABC Paulista), como fruto do trabalho de Juscelino Kubitschek. Graças à falta de mão de obra, migrantes do nordeste brasileiro (Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba, etc.) vêm em grande número para São Paulo e passam a viver na periferia aumentando o tamanho da região metropolitana daquela cidade.

JK e Palácio da Alvorada - Anos 50 - Arquivo Público DF

A partir da década de 60, São Paulo torna-se o principal pólo econômico e a maior cidade da América do Sul.

Construção da Estação da Luz 1900 -IMS

E assim, seguimos nessa linda e mágica cidade, Pauliceia! Até a próxima matéria!

Fontes:

Arquivo Nacional

Instituto Moreira Salles

Governo do Estado de São Paulo

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