Nelma Canellas e as diferenças entre champagnes e espumantes - 2ª Parte

O método Charmat

Após a adição do licor de tiragem, o vinho sofre a segunda fermentação, em tanques pressurizados (isobáricos), que não acontece nas garrafas, mas sim em tanques pressurizados (isobáricos), para só então ser engarrafado e consumido. Em geral, os produtos originados não permanecem muito tempo em contato com as leveduras (autólise), pois o objetivo é manter as notas frutadas.

Por ser um método de produção mais barato, pois o tempo de elaboração e o gasto com mão de obra são menores, costuma produzir espumantes com preços mais atrativos  e com características mais leves e refrescantes.

A maioria dos Proceccos, por exemplo, são fabricados pelo método Charmat. Porém, é preciso lembrar que fora da Itália é necessário chamá-los de Glera — pois Prosecco possui denominação de origem, e Esse é o Nome Correto da Uva.

O método Champenoise ou Tradicional

Já no método Champenoise , o mesmo utilizado nas tradicionais Maisons Françaises de Champagne, a segunda fermentação ocorre diretamente na garrafa. Essa etapa é a responsável pelo perfil sensorial do vinho, onde a bebida feita na primeira fase (chamada de vinho base) é colocada em garrafas junto ao licor de tiragem — uma combinação de leveduras, vinho e açúcar, que produzirá o gás carbônico do espumante.
Nesse caso, a garrafa precisa ser de vidro mais espesso, para não estourar devido à alta pressão. Afinal, o gás carbônico do espumante é completamente natural e não pode ser injetado.
Os espumantes produzidos pelo método tradicional costumam necessitar de períodos mais longos de maturação, o que acaba elevando o preço final da bebida. Porém, suas características sensoriais acabam sendo mais complexas.

Método Asti

Esse método é uma variação do Charmat, pois a fermentação também acontece dentro de tanques pressurizados. A principal diferença é que os espumantes estilo Asti passam por somente uma etapa de fermentação.

O processo é bem simples e consiste em colocar o suco das uvas Moscatel e as leveduras dentro dos tonéis. A fermentação é interrompida por choque térmico, assim que o vinho atinge um volume alcoólico entre 7 a 8%, dependendo da escolha do enólogo.

Dessa forma, uma boa quantidade do açúcar natural das uvas é mantido no líquido. Por isso, esses espumantes têm sabor mais adocicado. Depois, a bebida é filtrada e engarrafada e está pronta para ser comercializada.

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