Turismo de Brotas: sustentabilidade de seu negócio depende da preservação do meio ambiente

Na pequena Brotas, o badalado circuito de turismo de natureza e de aventura se consolida na região, mostrando na prática como preservar e colocar a natureza em primeiro lugar pode ser um ótimo negócio, em vários sentidos. Atualmente, o destino da cidade parece óbvio, seja para os que buscam práticas radicais de aventura em meio a natureza ou para quem deseja apenas relaxar entre cachoeiras, matas e muitos pássaros.

Assim como as águas do Jacaré-Pepira, as coisas foram fluindo naturalmente, conta o secretário de turismo de Brotas, Fábio Pontes. “Quando eu era moleque, vinha de moto aqui na [cachoeira] Astor, e tinha que entrar escondido, pulando a cerca”. Localizada em uma fazenda particular, o local ainda não era aberto para visitação. “O dono não gostava, criava vacas e vendia leite, não podia nem ver turista”.

A ameaça ao destino ecológico – e ao rio – de Brotas veio com o anúncio em 1992 da instalação de uma indústria de curtume, considerada altamente poluidora. Foi quando entrou em cena a ONG Movimento Viva Rio, que iniciou uma cruzada para conter essa e outras atividades predatórias. Criada sob o clima ambientalista da Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento, mais conhecida como Eco-92, ela propôs aos moradores um outro rumo para o desenvolvimento econômico do pequeno município.

O leito do rio foi mapeado e um levantamento minucioso foi feito sobre cachoeiras, fauna e flora. Até uma secretaria do meio ambiente foi criada no ano seguinte, em 1993. Era o início de um processo que mudaria a cara da cidade: estabelecer o turismo ecológico em Brotas como uma alternativa de crescimento e ao mesmo tempo preservando o Jacaré-Pepira.

Aventureiros aproveitam as descidas do Jacaré-Pepira sob a luz do luar

Logo as atividades turísticas se diversificaram e começaram a atrair mais pessoas. Rafting, trekking, rapel, canionismo, tirolesa, arvorismo, queda livre, off road, entre outras dezenas de atividades. Pessoas de todas as partes do país começaram a aparecer em quantidades cada vez maiores.

Junto com o ecoturismo vieram demandas por hospedagem e serviços, relembra Pontes. “A cidade tinha apenas duas pousadas, hoje são 48 hotéis”. Segundo o secretário de turismo, um circuito gastronômico também foi criado para atender o volume crescente de visitantes. “A cidade tinha um único restaurante, hoje são 60”.

Empresários de outras regiões começaram a ficar de olho no crescimento do ecoturismo e a partir de 1990 o ecoturismo em Brotas começou a ferver. Outros aspectos relacionados aos impactos do turismo também foram avaliados, como o mapeamento da serrapilheira nas trilhas e do embarque e desembarque do rafting. “Foram criados limites para todas as atividades”, diz Barbieri.

Atualmente, o ecoturismo movimenta R$ 110 milhões por ano, segundo o secretário de Turismo, Fabio Ponte.

A busca por experiências de imersões mais prolongadas em meio à natureza trouxe uma demanda que obrigou ecoparques a se adaptarem, passando a oferecer também serviços de alimentação e hospedagem. Com tantas atividades, rafting, tirolesa, trilhas, e dezenas de outras, visitantes queriam ficar mais tempo, explica Cris Barbieri, uma das sócias do ecoparque Viva Brotas. Sem quadras esportivas ou piscinas, a proposta por lá é oferecer um contato mais íntimo e livre com a natureza.

Causar o mínimo de impacto é uma preocupação constante, segundo a proprietária. Na prática, isso se dá principalmente no tipo de construção de parte das hospedagens, com chalés em palafitas com madeiras de reflorestamento e no tratamento do esgoto por fossa séptica biodigestora, um sistema desenvolvido pela Embrapa que evita a contaminação dos lençóis freáticos e solo e produz adubo orgânico líquido.

A estrutura do restaurante também segue o mesmo padrão dos chalés, em palafita, e o cardápio prioriza produtores locais. “frutas, legumes, verduras, ovos, leite, pouca coisa aqui na minha cozinha vem de fora”, observa Cris. Segunda ela, o preço final dos produtos fica um pouco mais caro, mas turistas valorizam a iniciativa de incentivar a economia local.

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