Museu dos Lanifícios em Covilhã: fascinante patrimônio que preserva o ciclo da lã

O Museu dos Lanifícios da Universidade da Beira Interior na Covilhã é um fascinante patrimônio que preserva e ilustra o ciclo da lã. O acervo do Museu dos Lanifícios é também a história da comunidade judaica e dos cristãos novos na Covilhã. Nos séculos XV e XVI formaram um centro de conhecimento que ultrapassava fronteiras.

Na antiga tinturaria da Fábrica Real de Panos, do século XVIII, vários poços cilíndricos faziam o tingimento de panos. Uma das salas ilustra de forma eficaz toda a atividade dos lanifícios na fase pré-industrial.

O trabalho era artesanal. Todas as peças do museu são originais da região da Covilhã.

Além da Fábrica Real, muitas pessoas produziam nas suas casas. Com o fim de algumas dessas fábricas muitos teares foram destruídos. A Universidade da Beira Interior, há cerca de 50 anos, quando da inauguração do museu, fez uma pesquisa e conseguiu obter algumas destas peças que são de finais do século XVIII, início do século XIX.

A algumas dezenas de metros encontra-se o outro núcleo do Museu, na Antiga Real Fábrica Veiga, e a exposição é quase toda dedicada à mecanização no processo de produção de lanifícios.

Grandes caldeiras, teares enormes e com processos mecânicos cada vez mais complexos e ao mesmo tempo mais produtivos. A evolução tecnológica e a transformação do artesão em operário de grandes fábricas e  a aplicação desse conhecimento conjugado com os recursos naturais da serra da Estrela tornaram a Covilhã, até aos dias de hoje, um polo inovador na indústria dos lanifícios.

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