Fortaleza de Mazagão: joia do patrimônio militar Português no Magrebe

Oficialmente fundada como vila em 1541, a cidade-fortaleza de Mazagão, foi desenhada pelo engenheiro italiano Benedetto da Ravenna, em conjunto com Miguel de Arruda e Diogo de Torralva. 

A construção do forte marca o início da adaptação das novas formas de combate no Magrebe – em virtude da utilização da artilharia por parte das forças islâmicas. A partir da 2ª Metade do Século XVI há uma adaptação das velhas fortificações medievais para esta nova arquitetura militar.

O seu porto de acesso fácil das muralhas, em alguns pontos com mais de dez metros de espessura, tornavam-na numa inexpugnável. Mais tarde, seria abandonada por Portugal, em 1769, por decisão do “valido” do Rei D.José I, o então Marquês de Pombal. Atualmente, a Cité Portugaise de El-Jadida está restaurada.

A enorme extensão do perímetro muralhado da antiga Mazagão mostram a tradição da arquitetura militar italiana e da importância do estilo renascentista durante o Reinado de D. João III (1521-1557). A famosa cisterna da antiga Mazagão é uma das atrações turísticas de Marrocos. Foi construída sob a direção de João de Castilho em estilo renascentista sobre o pátio de armas do antigo castelo de origem Manuelina. 

A concentração de meios humanos, materiais e bélicos numa única restauração permitia uma melhor resistência aos constantes e numerosos assédios das forças sob o signo de Alá.

Em 1769, a cidade-fortaleza de Mazagão foi abandonada pela Coroa Portuguesa. Em virtude deste abandono, a Coroa ordenou que os seus habitantes – nobreza local, soldados, etc. – fossem para Lisboa. Em seguida foram reenviados para uma nova missão: a fundação de uma Nova Mazagão, na fronteira Norte do Brasil, no atual estado de Amapá. Era o fim de mais de três séculos de presença portuguesa em Marrocos (1415-1769), em virtude das possessões norte-africanas serem um sorvedouro de recursos humanos, monetários e bélicos, sem qualquer retorno (à exceção das questões ideológicas, Guerra Santa).

Além de ser uma importante atração turística de Marrocos, a antiga fortificação de Mazagão constitui um dos melhores exemplos conservados da arquitetura militar do Renascimento fora do continente Europeu, que resistiu ao teste do tempo e da própria ação humana.

As fortificações portuguesas de Mazagão foram inscritas na lista do Património da Humanidade pela UNESCO em 2004 e, em 2009, como uma das Sete Maravilhas de Origem Portuguesa no Mundo. 

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