André Conrado: Maranhão, Terra de Encantos - Parte 2

Palácio dos Leões - inicio séc XX - Museu Histórico e Artístico do Maranhão

Palácio dos Leões

Imagem do antigo Forte de São Luís (Palácio do Governo) séc XIX - Arquivo Nacional

A sua localização privilegiada, no alto do promontório onde nasceu a cidade de São Luís e aliada à sua trajetória histórica que começa no século XVII, à sua arquitetura e seus bens artísticos, fazem do Palácio um conjunto de fundamental importância para o entendimento da formação da identidade cultural do povo maranhense.

Após a expulsão dos franceses, em 1615, o forte de São Luís é rebatizado São Felipe pelos portugueses. Dentro do recinto do forte, o capitão-mor Jerônimo de Albuquerque inicia a construção da residência dos Governadores, erguida com a técnica de taipa de pilão por mão-de-obra indígena.

Praça Jõao Lisboa e Palácio do Governo - São Luis do Maranhão - Arquivo Nacional

Em 1766, o governador Joaquim de Mello e Póvoas determinou a demolição do velho Palácio do Governo e fez construir um novo edifício em pedra e cal, para melhor acomodar a família dos capitães-generais que lhe sucedessem. O palácio construído por ordem de Mello e Póvoas era sóbrio, com beirais salientes e o telhado baixo. A entrada era feita pelo lado do edifício; somente na reforma empreendida em 1857 é que esta foi deslocada para o centro da fachada principal.

Durante todo o período do império o Palácio do Governo passou por várias reformas. Dentre esses melhoramentos, os mais significativos foram: iluminação a gás e “lageamento” do passeio da testada do edifício em pedra de cantaria portuguesa em 1863 e a aquisição de móveis e outros objetos em 1872.

Foto aérea São Luis do Maranhão (ao fundo Palácio dos Leões) Inicio séc XX - IMS

Na era republicana, o antigo prédio do Palácio do Governo passou por sua primeira grande reforma em 1896, durante a administração de Manuel Inácio Belfort Vieira. A segunda reforma seria empreendida em 1906 por Benedito Leite, responsável pela construção da extensa ala nos fundos do Palácio, destinada à residência do governador e aquisição de algum mobiliário e objetos de adorno que mandou vir da Europa.

Foto externa antiga Palácio dos Leões - séc XX - Braziliana Fotografica

Em 1911, quando Luís Domingues assume o governo do Maranhão, encontrou o Palácio com pouca mobília, muitas salas necessitando de reparos, a fachada ainda no estilo colonial, apesar de estar alterada.  Na fachada havia um brasão heráldico com leões pintado em azulejos, que serviu mais tarde como tema ao jornal “O Combate”, em sua campanha oposicionista ao governo de Magalhães de Almeida (1926 – 1929), que fazia, de forma irônica, a comparação entre o governador e seu gabinete com os leões. Apesar da clara intenção de uma crítica ferina, o apelido pegou, e o povo e sucessivos governantes acabaram adotando para sempre o nome Palácio dos Leões para o Palácio do Governo.

Últimas Reformas do Palácio dos Leões

Palácio dos Leões - atual - Domínio Público

Em 1968, o então governador José Sarney realizou melhorias internas no prédio, após várias outras reformas.

O Palácio dos Leões foi ampliado com a aquisição do prédio da antiga delegacia Fiscal do Tesouro Nacional, que se situava ao lado, aumentando significativamente suas instalações administrativas.

Em 1970, o governador Pedro Neiva de Santana complementou e terminou a decoração do Palácio dos Leões iniciada no governo Sarney, recuperando a pinacoteca e reformando toda a decoração das salas e dependências, inclusive colocando candelabros, tapetes e cortinas.

Na última reforma do Palácio dos Leões, foram recuperadas as instalações principais e o telhado e iniciado o registro das obras de arte, mobiliário, prataria, louças e de todos os demais bens e objetos passíveis de inventário.

O Palácio dos Leões guarda rico acervo cultural

Muito mais do que a suntuosidade de sua estrutura frontal, vigiada por dois imponentes leões representando o Poder Executivo, o Palácio dos Leões tem três mil metros quadrados de área construída, dividida em três alas – residencial, administrativa e visitação –, que guardam um acervo cultural riquíssimo constituído por pinacoteca, esculturas, porcelanas, prataria, cristais e mobiliário.

Os cinco salões nobres do Palácio dos Leões guardam 1.300 obras de inestimável valor artístico, que hoje estão inventariadas, tombadas e catalogadas e podem ser admiradas pelos visitantes.

Entre as peças dispostas, estão candelabros, castiçais, tapetes franceses, lustres de cristais, porcelanas finas trazidas de países como China, França e Áustria e pratarias portuguesas.

O belo Palácio abriga um mobiliário eclético e expõem peças que remontam há mais de 200 anos. Entre as peças dispostas, estão candelabros, castiçais, tapetes franceses, lustres de cristais, porcelanas finas trazidas de países como China, França e Áustria e pratarias portuguesas.

Raridades no Palácio dos Leões

Foto raridades do Palacio dos Leões - Dominio Público

O acervo do Palácio dos Leões inclui ainda raridades como um Biedermeier artesanal e o Arcais (móvel utilizado para guardar objetos eclesiásticos), que pertenceu à capela do Bom Jesus dos Navegantes.

Outra preciosidade é a coleção de artes plásticas de Arthur Azevedo e pertencente ao acervo da Casa. São quadros a óleo, alguns deles muito valiosos, como os de Eliseu Visconti, Vitor Meireles e Parreiras. Certeza de um valioso convite a visitação!

 Fontes:

Arquivo Nacional

Museu Histórico e Artístico do Maranhão

Instituto Moreira Salles

Braziliana Fotográfica

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43 Comentários

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  • Andre , gostei muito. Que Palácio rico, lindo acervo.

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  • Lindo! Que acervo! Eu já fui 3 vz no Maranhão e sempre é uma surpresa

  • Que beleza o Palácio dos Leões!! Quero conhecer pessoalmente! Bela matéria, como sempre!!

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