André Conrado: Natal – RN : A cidade do rio grande - Parte 1

Ponta Negra sec XX

O Rio Potengi e a cidade do Natal

Mapa da Foz do Rio Grande - Natal - RN - 1609 - Arquivo Nacional

Aterrizamos nesta expedição na linda cidade do Natal, capital do Rio Grande do Norte

Sim, historicamente o correto é “do Natal”, que nasceu e se desenvolveu “à sombra” de um grande rio, o Potengi. Em sua história de mais de quatrocentos anos, a cidade ora se aproxima, ora se distancia do rio, num movimento que não é somente físico, mas também social e simbólico. Esta viagem na história, propõe a análise dessa relação em cinco períodos que expressam, esse movimento de certa maneira contraditório de aproximação e distanciamento entre cidade e rio ou entre rio e cidade. São eles: O rio como aliado da cidade nascente (1599-1614);O comércio, o rio e a cidade (1700-1900); O rio como obstáculo para a cidade (1850-1916); A aviação. Aproximando o rio à cidade (1920-1945); O rio “invisível” para a cidade (desde 1945). Afinal, são mais de quatro séculos de história…

Fortaleza dos Reis Magos

Fortaleza dos Reis Magos - Séc XVII - Arquivo Nacional

O Forte dos Reis Magos representa um marco na história das fortificações da orla marítima do Brasil. É uma das mais importantes, belas e sugestivas, e a mais bem edificadas no litoral brasileiro, cuja construção teve início ainda no século XVI. É ainda o marco de fundação da cidade de Natal.

Sua história começa com a resposta das coroas portuguesa e espanhola à ameaça externa, principalmente pelos corsários franceses que traficavam o Pau-Brasil, determinando a construção de um forte e de uma colônia na sua periferia.

Mapa Período Colonial (Forte ao fundo) - 1633 - Mapotéca do Itamarati

Em 1597, no período da união das coroas portuguesa e espanhola, foi determinado, por intermédio do Governador-Geral do Brasil, D. Francisco de Souza, a organização de uma expedição para expulsar os franceses. Seria também edificada uma fortificação na barra do Rio Potengi, e, posteriormente, seria fundada uma cidade nas suas proximidades. Coube ao Capitão-mor da Paraíba, Feliciano Coelho, e ao governador de Pernambuco seguir para o Rio Grande do Norte, ali estabelecer uma colônia e construir um forte. Manoel de Mascarenhas Homem, capitão-mor de Pernambuco seguiu com 12 embarcações pelo mar, enquanto Feliciano Coelho de Carvalho e Jerônimo de Albuquerque conduziram 350 homens, 900 índios e escravos por terra.

Imagem da Fortaleza dos Reis Magos e embarcações - Séc XVII - Gillis Peters -Arquivo Nacional

A construção teve início no dia 6 de janeiro de 1598, na praia, em pau-a-pique, com varas e barreado com lama do mangue. O projeto de construção foi confiado ao jesuíta e arquiteto Padre Gaspar de Sampères, que exercera a profissão de engenheiro na Espanha, porém a edificação atual foi projetada pelo Engenheiro-mor Francisco Farias de Mesquita, em 1614. Mascarenhas Homem lançou a pedra fundamental, e a partir daí ninguém parou.

A edificação da colônia deu início após a conclusão do forte. Deram o nome de Natal, porque, no dia em que se comemorava o nascimento de Jesus, chegou a esquadra portuguesa no Rio Grande do Norte.

A fortaleza foi fundamental na defesa do território brasileiro durante o período colonial. Entretanto, em dezembro de 1633, não resistiu ao poderio da invasão holandesa, com aproximadamente 2 mil homens embarcados em 16 navios. A partir daí passou a chamar-se Castelo Keulen”.

Assim permaneceu a fortaleza sob o domínio dos holandeses durante 21 anos. Em janeiro de 1654, com a expulsão dos invasores, o forte foi recuperado e os portugueses assumiram o comando e retomaram a denominação anterior Fortaleza dos Reis Magos.

No Forte residiram vários capitães e também estiveram presentes grandes personagens da nossa história, desde os colonizadores até os invasores, destacando-se Maurício de Nassau e Franz Post, o pintor do Castelo Keulen.

Assim permaneceu a fortaleza sob o domínio dos holandeses durante 21 anos. Em janeiro de 1654, com a expulsão dos invasores, o forte foi recuperado e os portugueses assumiram o comando e retomaram a denominação anterior Fortaleza dos Reis Magos.

No Forte residiram vários capitães e também estiveram presentes grandes personagens da nossa história, desde os colonizadores até os invasores, destacando-se Maurício de Nassau e Franz Post, o pintor do Castelo Keulen.

Fortaleza dos Reis Magos - séc XVIII - Arquivo Nacional

Nas suas prisões, estiveram prisioneiros heróis e mártires como o índio Jaguarari, no período da invasão holandesa, e André de Albuquerque Maranhão, líder do Movimento Republicano de 1817, na Capitania do Rio Grande.

Foi tombado pelo Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional (IPHAN) em 15 de janeiro de 1949, sendo integrado ao Patrimônio Cultural da Fundação José Augusto, por Decreto governamental de 20 de setembro de 1965.

O Forte hoje

Forte dos Reis Magos - atual - Prefeitura de Natal - RN

O Forte hoje é uma das principais atrações turísticas de Natal, recebendo, durante a alta temporada, até 2 mil visitantes por dia.

O atual forte apresenta planta poligonal irregular, erguido em alvenaria de pedra e cal. Em torno do terrapleno, ao abrigo das muralhas, encontram-se dispostas a Casa de Comando, os Quartéis e os Depósitos ao centro, uma edificação de planta quadrangular, em dois pavimentos:

  • no pavimento inferior, situa-se a Capela, apresentando vãos em arco
  • no superior, que só é alcançado a partir de escadas, está Casa da Pólvora, coberta por uma cúpula piramidal.

Do Pavimento Superior os turistas desfrutam de uma bela vista da cidade. No pavimento interior, as antigas celas e dormitórios exibem painéis ilustrativos sobre a história do forte e do período colonial Brasileiro, além de exibir o Marco de Touros, o mais antigo marco português no Brasil.

Foto interna da Fortaleza dos Reis Magos - Natal - RN - Domínio Público

Também no local é possível conhecer objetos da época, como a “besta”, arma de guerra trazida pelos portugueses, utilizada para arremessar pedras, entre outros. Uma visita imperdível para quem visita a bela e ensolarada Natal!

Fontes: 

@aclubtour

Arquivo Nacional

Biblioteca IBGE

Mapoteca do Itamarati 

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71 Comentários

  • André!!!! Linda a história do Forte dos Reis Magos em Natal!!!!! PARABÉNS!!!!

  • André, que beleza a reportagem. Estive nesse Forte e adorei a visita. Parabéns!!

  • Esses Albuquerque Maranhão, né, Dedé? Haha
    Gratidão por mais esta matéria tão cheia de informação e cultura.

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