André Conrado apresenta As Minas Gerais - Seguindo a trilha do Ouro Parte 5

Imagem da Obra do pintor Johann Moritz Rugendas - Expedição a Vila Rica -1835 - Arquivo Nacional

Cidade de Ouro Preto (Vila Rica)

Seguindo nossa bela expedição pela Estrada Real, chegamos a mitológica Vila Rica hoje denominada cidade de Ouro Preto.

Localizada na região Central de Minas Gerais, a cidade de Ouro Preto reúne o maior e mais importante acervo da arquitetura e da arte do período colonial de todo o Brasil. Em meio ao casario dos séculos XVII e XVIII, construído nas ladeiras de uma região montanhosa, erguem-se 13 igrejas monumentais, com altares banhados a ouro e imagens sacras, nos estilos barroco e rococó.

Imagem do Mapa da Comarca de Villa Rica - 1735 - Biblioteca Nacional

A origem de Ouro Preto está no arraial do Padre Faria, fundado pelo bandeirante Antônio Dias de Oliveira, pelo Padre João de Faria Fialho e pelo Coronel Tomás Lopes de Camargo em 1698.

Tudo se inicia com a descoberta do ouro no leito de um córrego, fato que atraiu centenas de bandeirantes paulistas e fez a riqueza da região por quase um século. Na aparência, eram pedras de superfície escura; daí, o nome ouro preto. Depois de fundido, revelava-se o amarelo.

Imagem do Mapa de Rendimento do Ouro nas Reais Casas de Fundição nas Minas Gerais ( entre Julho e Setembro de 1767) - Arquivo Nacional

Assim batizou-se o povoamento de Vila Rica de Albuquerque, em 8 de julho de 1711, data oficial de sua fundação. A administração portuguesa reconheceu-a, no ano seguinte, com o nome simplificado de Vila Rica. Baseado na exploração do ouro, seu apogeu econômico deu-se no período de 1730 a 1765, quando se consolidou como um centro urbano com uma população estimada em mais de 20 mil habitantes. 

A riqueza da economia baseada na mineração de ouro em Vila Rica deixou um legado de grande valor para a cultura. Ali, projetaram-se dois dos maiores artistas do período colonial brasileiro: o arquiteto, escultor e entalhador Antônio Francisco Lisboa, o Aleijadinho, e o pintor Manuel da Costa Athaíde, que citamos na matéria passada.

Imagem de Vila Rica (Ouro Preto) séc XIX - Arquivo Nacional

A bela arquitetura religiosa do período leva a marca da ostentação e do luxo, como pode ser observado nas igrejas de Nossa Senhora do Pilar, São Francisco de Assis, Nossa Senhora do Rosário e de Santa Efigênia. Uma das soluções originais deu-se com o largo emprego da pedra-sabão, abundante na região, como forma de substituir o mármore europeu. Os chafarizes de Marília e do largo de Frei Vicente Botelho acrescentam uma graça ainda mais especial ao tortuoso traçado urbano da bela cidade.

Foto histórica mercado da Freguesia - Vila Rica (Ouro Preto) Séc XIX - Arquivo Nacional
Foto da Cidade de Ouro Preto (Igrejas) em 1870 - Arquivo Nacional

Para a história do Brasil, Vila Rica (Ouro Preto) apresentou grande relevância como palco da Inconfidência Mineira, o principal movimento de contestação à metrópole portuguesa, ocorrido em 1789. A traição de um de seus integrantes levou a Coroa a descobrir a conspiração em Vila Rica, reprimindo-a duramente. Considerado o principal líder insurgente, o alferes Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, apelidado de Tiradentes, acabou enforcado e esquartejado no Rio de Janeiro, em 21 de abril de 1792.

Foto do Monumento a Tiradentes - Ouro Preto MG - 1908 - Arquivo Nacional

O motivo imediato da revolta era a cobrança de impostos atrasados, o “quinto” sobre toda a extração de ouro, tributo estabelecido pelo governo português. Entre os rebeldes, havia um grupo de intelectuais informados sobre os ideais difundidos por ocasião da independência das 13 colônias inglesas na América do Norte (1776) e nos antecedentes da Revolução Francesa (1789). Entre seus planos, estavam a separação de Portugal e a fundação de uma república no Brasil. 

Em 1823, após a Independência do Brasil, Vila Rica recebeu o título de Imperial Cidade, conferido por D. Pedro I do Brasil, tornando-se oficialmente capital da então província das Minas Gerais e passando a ser designada como Imperial Cidade de Ouro Preto.

Em 1839 foi criada a Escola de Farmácia e em 1876 a Escola de Minas. Foi sede do movimento revolucionário conhecido como Inconfidência Mineira. Foi a capital da província e mais tarde do estado, até 1897.

Foto do Monumento a Tiradentes - Ouro Preto MG - 1908 - Arquivo Nacional

No próximo capítulo, seguiremos nesta bela viagem histórica na cidade de Ouro Preto. Não Percam!

Foto da Cadeia Pública - Ouro Preto MG - 1908 - Arquivo Nacional

Fontes:

@aclubtour

Arquivo Nacional

Biblioteca Nacional Digital 

IPHAN

Museu da Inconfidência



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