André Conrado - As Minas Gerais - Seguindo a trilha do Ouro - Parte 6

Foto da Cidade de Ouro Preto - século XIX - Museu da Inconfidência

Dando continuidade à esta bela viagem no tempo chegamos ao final do século XIX na esplêndida cidade de Ouro Preto.

Foi a capital da província e, mais tarde, do estado, até 1897 como abordamos na matéria passada. Assim era descrita a cidade de Ouro Preto pelo ilustre fundador da Escola de Minas, em relatório enviado ao imperador Pedro II: “Em muito pequena extensão de terreno, pode-se acompanhar a série quase completa das rochas metamórficas que constituem grande parte do território brasileiro e todos os arredores da cidade se prestam a excursões mineralógicas proveitosas e interessantes”. (Claude Henri Gorceix)

Foto da cidade de Ouro Preto - final do século XIX - IPHAN

Desde que ocorreu a fixação nas áreas mineradoras da região de Ouro Preto, no final do século XVII e início do XVIII, a cidade teve várias imagens. De um local que “exalava conflitos”, no dizer do Conde de Assumar, governador da Capitania das Minas no século XVIII, até a de uma capital que dificultava a modernização do Estado no início da República. O início da ocupação do espaço urbano de Ouro Preto ocorreu com a formação de arraiais mineradores isolados (Ouro Podre, Taquaral, Antônio Dias, Pilar). A consolidação urbana e a presença efetiva da Coroa portuguesa aconteceram somente em meados do século XVIII com a construção dos Palácio dos Governadores (atual Escola de Minas), pelo engenheiro-militar José Fernandes Alpoim e dos arruamentos ligando os referidos arraiais.

Foto da antiga Escola de Minas ( Palácio do Governo) Ouro Preto 1908 - Museu da Inconfidência

Entretanto, em 1897, a mudança da capital para Belo Horizonte provocou um grande esvaziamento da cidade, acabou inibindo o crescimento urbano da cidade nas décadas seguintes; fato que contribuiu para preservação do Centro Histórico de Ouro Preto. Naquele momento, Ouro Preto era vista pela elite mineira como símbolo do atraso e a construção de Belo Horizonte também representou o ideal republicano de modernização. Entretanto, também havia partidários da permanência da capital em Ouro Preto. Estes propuseram planos de revitalização da cidade e destacavam a importância histórica da cidade na conformação de Minas e do Brasil. Com a Proclamação da República brasileira em 1889, a velha cidade de Ouro Preto passou a ser vista como um entrave para o desenvolvimento do estado de Minas Gerais, que substituiu a província de Minas Gerais. Foi decidida, então, a transferência da capital estadual para uma cidade planejada, a atual cidade de Belo Horizonte, que veio a ser inaugurada em 1897.

Foto histórica da cidade de Ouro Preto - Final do séc XIX - Arquivo Publico Mineiro

Séculos XX e XXI

As igreja barrocas-rococós a certas influências neoclássicas e o casario colonial de Ouro Preto só voltaram a ficar evidenciados de forma positiva pelo movimento modernista, na década de 1920. Nesse momento, as obras de Aleijadinho e Mestre Ataíde passaram a ser vistas como manifestações primeiras de uma cultura genuinamente brasileira. O próprio tombamento da cidade faz parte do projeto de construção de nacionalidade brasileira, sendo o primeiro local do país considerado monumento nacional.

Foto da cidade de Ouro Preto e Igreja - Inicio séc XX - Arquivo Nacional

Em 2005, foi alterado o lema inscrito na bandeira da cidade. Segundo os movimentos negros, o lema anterior, PROETIOSVM TAMEM NIGRVM (traduzido do latim, “Precioso, Ainda que Negro”) tinha uma conotação racista. Dessa forma, o novo lema inscrito na bandeira da cidade assou passou a ser PROETIOSVM AVRVM NIGRVM (“Precioso Ouro Negro)

Museu da Inconfidência

Criação do Museu 

Em meados da década de 30, o presidente Getúlio Vargas determinou que os restos mortais dos participantes da Inconfidência degredados para a África fossem trazidos de volta ao Brasil. Os ossos que puderam ser exumados chegaram em 1937. Numa época em que o resgate da memória brasileira começava a se tornar prioridade tanto para governo quanto para intelectuais, o local para depósito daquelas relíquias só poderia ser Ouro Preto.

Imagem da Obra de Arnaud Palliere - Vista de Vila Rica - 1820 - Museu da Inconfidência

Ao ser esvaziado em 1938 o prédio da antiga Casa de Câmara e Cadeia de Vila Rica, (edificada entre 1785 e 1855), que ultimamente funcionava como penitenciária estadual, um dos seus salões destinou-se para abrigar o Panteão dos Inconfidentes, que foi inaugurado no dia 21 de abril de 1942, data do transcurso do 150º aniversário da sentença condenatória dos inconfidentes. Em seguida, por meio de decreto-lei do governo federal, criou-se o Museu da Inconfidência, que completaria a ocupação do imóvel, sendo inaugurado em 11 de agosto de 1944, ao término das reformas para a adaptação do edifício à nova função.

Foto das Obras do Museu da Inconfidencia - Acervo APM

Nos anos 70, o Museu teve início um longo trabalho que culminou com a reformulação completa da sua área expositiva. Em 2006, seria entregue ao público uma casa renovada, com um circuito expositivo que, finalmente, seria uma abordagem verdadeira da Inconfidência, em obediência ao que determinava o decreto de sua criação. Na esteira dessa obra que se estendeu por todos os setores, criou condições de excelência para o funcionamento. 

Nesta semana o Museu da Inconfidência completou 77 anos, uma bela data para se celebrar a cultura e convidar todos à uma visita a história do nosso país.

Foto do Museu da Inconfidência - 77 anos - Divulgação Museu da Inconfidência - @aclubtour

Na última parada dessa linda expedição pela trilha do ouro, chegaremos à cidade barroca de Mariana. Não percam!

Fontes:

@aclubtour

Arquivo Nacional

Arquivo Público Mineiro

Biblioteca Nacional Digital

Museu da Inconfidência

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  • Parabéns pela matéria!! Obrigado por compartilhar um pouco mais dessa linda história.

  • Tanto pra contar sobre as Cidades Históricas, né? Eu passei dias muito felizes por lá!
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  • ANDRÉ!!!!MUITO BONITO O FINAL DA HISTÓRIA DE OURO PRETO!!!!!! PARABÉNS!!!!!

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