Sonia Belart - Preciosidades da Biblioteca Nacional

Preciosidades guardadas a sete chaves  da Biblioteca Nacional

    A Biblioteca Nacional considerada a sétima maior instituição  do mundo e a maior da América Latina  com mais de 200 anos de história , chega  ser mais antiga que a constituição  do Brasil  como nação independente.
Possui um acervo de obras raras e preciosas assim como a Bíblia Mogúncia,  impressa em 1462 por Johannes Gutenberg,  o inventor alemão e pai da imprensa.
Esta Biblia encontra se guardada a sete chaves juntamente com outras raridades, um acervo riquíssimo, apesar de ser ignorada por muitos pesquisadores brasileiros, que ainda solicitam bolsa patrocínio para buscar em Portugal originais que se encontram no Rio de Janeiro. Segundo a bibliotecária, chefe da divisão de obras raras e guardiã desses tesouros , que se lamenta pelo descredito e sugere uma maior valorização pelos pesquisadores,  até mesmo para desvendar uma série de questões históricas.

Visitar uma dessas peças de valor incalculável não é assim tão fácil, obedece a um ritual que passa até pela autorização da Policia Federal  e pela própria guardiã Ana Virginia Pinheiro. Sendo itens de cofre só saem em raras ocasiões como por exemplo: A Bíblia Mogúncia que só saiu duas vezes do cofre na gestão da guardiã desde 2004 e é cercada de cuidados, seu cofre possui segredos igual a de um banco e a prova de fogo.
A Bíblia Mogúncia integrava a Biblioteca Real e veio para o Brasil com a família imperial em 1808, ficando aqui porque a compramos, sendo parte de uma negociação para o reconhecimento da independência do Brasil. Ficamos com dois exemplares,  aliás existem muito poucos no mundo. É rara por ser o primeiro livro impresso no mundo que permitiu produzir  exemplares.

Para fazer parte do acervo de obras raras e ser uma preciosidade da BN não basta ser antigo, é preciso ser único, inédito e que faça parte de alguma edição especial.
  Dentre os tesouros da BN encontra-se: a Crônica de Nuremberg (1493) por ser o livro mais ilustrado do século XV com mapas xilogravados como os mais antigos em um livro impresso, a primeira edição de “Os Lusíadas ” de Luis de Camões, 1572, a primeira edição de “A arte da Gramática da Língua Portuguesa, escrita em 1595 por Padre José de Anchieta, o primeiro Jornal impresso no
mundo em 1601; e dentre mais  algumas poucas raridades encontra -se mais de 369 fotografias históricas que integram a coleção  de Dona Thereza Cristina, formada pelo imperator D.Pedro II e que fazem parte do registro de memórias da Unesco desde 2003, no qual foram furtadas mas devidamente devolvidas.
São tantos os nossos tesouros que não imaginamos a magnitude de um país tão rico.

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