André Conrado: Teresópolis - RJ - A cidade de Teresa – Parte 1

Imagem da Vista da Freguesia de Teresópolis em 1885 – Grim – Arquivo Nacional

Imagem da Vista da Freguesia de Teresópolis em 1885 - Grim - Arquivo Nacional

Convido a todos os leitores para mais uma bela e histórica expedição, desta vez pela riquíssima Serra dos Órgãos fluminense.

Foto histórica da Serra dos Orgãos - Século XIX - Arquivo Nacional

A região onde atualmente situa-se Teresópolis era habitada no século XVI por índios timbiras, antes mesmo da chegada dos portugueses. Certo progresso foi visto quando os escravos que fugiam das plantações de cana da Baixada fluminense formaram o Quilombo da Serra.

Imagem do antigo Quilombo da Serra -Johann Rugendas - Arquivo Nacional

A primeira descrição oficial de Teresópolis foi feita em 1788 por Baltazar da Silva Lisboa, que, em seu relato, descrevia a serra e a Cascata do Imbuí.

As origens de Teresópolis datam, portanto, da primeira metade do século XIX, mais precisamente a partir de 1821, quando o português de origem inglesa George March adquiriu uma grande gleba e transformou-a em uma fazenda-modelo, com sua sede localizada onde atualmente encontra-se o bairro do Alto. A fazenda denominava-se “Santo Antônio” ou “Sant’Ana do Paquequer” e acabou por gerar o primeiro povoado de maior importância ao longo do caminho que ligava a Corte à província das Gerais, desenvolvendo, de maneira considerável, a sua agricultura e pecuária e o veraneio da região.

Foto histórica na época da Fazenda de George March - 1821 - Arquivo Nacional

Lentamente, o povoado foi se desenvolvendo e passando à categoria de Freguesia de Santo Antônio do Paquequer, através do Decreto Provincial, de 25 de outubro de 1855.

Todo o crescimento e posterior desenvolvimento deste pequeno núcleo se verificou no sentido Norte-Sul, isto é, os comerciantes que vinham das Minas Gerais em direção ao Porto da Estrela, nos fundos da Baía de Guanabara, passando por Petrópolis, visavam a esta região como ponto estratégico de repouso.

A família imperial brasileira encantou-se com as belezas deste local em suas constantes visitas feitas durante o século XIX. A fazenda de Santo Antônio, como foi chamada, posicionava-se no caminho que ligava a Corte Real até a província das Minas Gerais, onde o primeiro povoamento de maior importância foi formado.

Foto histórica da visita da Família Imperial a Teresópolis (Santo Antônio de Paquequer) - 1887 - Arquivo Nacional

No início da última década deste século após a Proclamação da República, mais precisamente em 6 de julho de 1891, o então governador do estado Francisco Portella elevou a freguesia à condição de município, emancipando-a de Magé e nomeando-a de Teresópolis, em homenagem à imperatriz Teresa Cristina, que havia falecido dois anos antes no exílio.

Foto histórica da fundação da cidade de Teresópolis (elevação à cidade) 1891 - Arquivo Nacional

Desde então, a cidade se desenvolveu rapidamente, após a chegada e, posteriormente, a desativação do trem, para dar lugar à rodovia Rio-Teresópolis, que liga a cidade até a capital.

O Município de Teresópolis fica composto por dois distritos: Teresópolis e Santa Rita. Santa Rita, que fora criada pelos Decretos Estaduais de 1892, passa a se chamar Paquequer Pequeno com o Decreto Estadual de 15 de dezembro de 1938 (atualmente, chama-se Vale do Paquequer).

Com a Lei Estadual de 17 de dezembro de 1901, o distrito de Sebastiana (a freguesia de Nossa Senhora da Conceição do Ribeirão da Sebastiana do Município de Nova Friburgo, criada pelo Decreto Provincial de 26 de novembro de 1862, toma a denominação de Sebastiana com os Decretos Estaduais, compreendendo a área onde localiza se o Vale Feliz e Albuquerque as divisas de Conquista e Salinas, passa a ser o terceiro distrito do Município de Teresópolis.

Este último distrito chegou a tomar o nome de Nhunguaçu com o Decreto-lei Estadual, mas atualmente é conhecido como Vale de Bonsucesso.

Foto do Bairro da Varzea - Teresópolis - Inicio séc XX - Arquivo Nacional



Chegada do Trem

Durante o século XIX, o trem foi o principal meio de transporte e se expandiu mundialmente até a segunda metade do século XX. No estado do Rio, pioneiro no transporte ferroviário no país, havia um ramal que funcionava a partir do Cais da Piedade, onde atracavam as barcas de passageiros, até o distrito de Guapimirim, passando pelo centro do município de Magé.

Foto Histórica do Cais do porto de Piedade - Magé - 1908 - Arquivo Nacional

Até 1901, a estação de Guapimirim serviu como final da linha, até que iniciaram as obras para subir a Serra dos Órgãos. A expansão foi gradativa, chegando primeiro nas localidades de Barreira (1904), Miudinho (1905), Garrafão e Alto (1908), mais precisamente no dia 7 de setembro deste mesmo ano, quando todo esse trecho foi inaugurado oficialmente. Até então Teresópolis tinha uma via de transportes incipiente. Anos depois, foi notado que a estrada de ferro propiciou um certo progresso da área.

Foto da antiga Estação de Magé - Inicio séc XX - IPHAN

Em 1919, com a administração da ferrovia tomada pela Estrada de Ferro Central do Brasil, o ramal foi prolongado até uma localidade denominada como “Várzea de Teresópolis”, onde foi construída uma nova estação terminal, a Estação José Augusto Vieira, em 1929. Os trens passaram a partir da Estação Barão de Mauá, no Rio de Janeiro até Magé, onde seguiam para Teresópolis pelo trajeto original. Na manhã de 9 de março de 1957, o trem desce a Serra pela última vez em direção à Guapimirim, para dar lugar a um novo plano rodoviário, marcando, assim, o final de uma era.

Foto histórica da linha ferrea Teresópolis - Inicio séc XX - Arquivo Nacional

Na próxima edição, falaremos do desenvolvimento da bela cidade serrana ao longo do século XX. Não percam!



Fontes

@aclubtour

Arquivo Nacional

Biblioteca Nacional

IBGE

IMS

IPHAN

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  • Andre! Ficou ótima matéria! Adoro Tere! Bjsss

  • Gostei de saber q o nome da cidade foi uma homenagem a Grande D Tereza Cristina!

  • Muito bom! Obrigado pelo carinho com minha cidade.

  • Uau! Fui muito pra Teresópolis na infância! Gostei de saber mais a respeito!

  • Fui muito aos bailes de carnaval da rua alta! Bons tempos!

  • Já assisti um treino da seleção brasileira na granja Comary. Cidade agradável.

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