André Conrado: Teresópolis - RJ - A cidade de Teresa - Parte 2

Foto histórica do Bairro do Alto – Teresópolis – 1911 – Arquivo Nacional

A economia de Teresópolis, assim como a das outras cidades da Região Serrana, é voltada principalmente ao turismo, com diversos atrativos naturais e urbanos. Dentre os naturais, podemos destacar a sede do Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos (PARNASO).

Criado em 30 de novembro de 1939, o Parque é o terceiro parque mais antigo do país (Itatiaia em 1937 e Iguaçú, também em 1939, o antecederam). Esta primeira geração de parques brasileiros reflete a chegada ao Brasil de uma preocupação mundial com a degradação dos ambientes naturais.

Foto histórica do Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos - Início século XX - IBGE - ICMBIo

No início do Século XX, já era grande a preocupação, principalmente dos países industrializados, em defender seus ambientes naturais. Foram criadas áreas protegidas para a flora e a fauna, resguardando não só a vida dos ecossistemas e dos mananciais de água, mas também as belezas cênicas dos monumentos naturais. Dentro desse espírito, nascem no país os três primeiros Parques Nacionais: o de Itatiaia, em 1937, e os de Iguaçu e da Serra dos Órgãos, em 1939.

Foto histórica de Getúlio Vargas na criação dos Parques Nacionais - Anos 30 - ICMbio - Arquivo Nacional

Em 25 de setembro de 1938, o Jornal do Commercio publicava a seguinte nota, que teria sido uma primeira sugestão de criação do parque: “converter as cabeceiras dos rios que correm para baixada Fluminense, para Teresópolis e para o município de Petrópolis, abrangendo as montanhas elevadas e os picos altaneiros que disputam com as” Agulhas Negras” de Itatiaia e os vértices agudos da Serra de Caparaó, as primazias de pontos culminantes de nosso caro Brasil, de onde se destacam o inconfundível “Dedo de Deus”, a Pedra  Açu”, o “Campo das Antas”, num belíssimo Parque Nacional que nada ficaria devendo às mais adiantadas criações desse gênero.”

Foto da sede do Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgãos (Guapimirim) Década de 40 - ICMbio

Com uma área aproximada de 9.000 hectares, abrangendo parte dos municípios de Magé, Petrópolis e Teresópolis. Mais tarde, o Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos teve sua área delimitada com 10.527 hectares (105 km²), através do Decreto nº 90.023, de 2 de agosto de 1984. O município de Guapimirim foi criado na década de 1990, emancipado de Magé.

Foto da Construção da Trilha da Pedra do Sino - Parque da Serra dos Orgãos - Década de 40 - ICMBio

O Parque recebeu grande infraestrutura na década de 1940 e era frequentemente visitado por embaixadores e autoridades da República. Instalações como a piscina natural, os prédios da administração, depósitos, garagem, residências funcionais e os quatro abrigos da Trilha do Sino foram construídos nesta época.

Foto histórica do antigo abrigo 2 ( Trilha do Sino )do Parque da Serra dos Órgãos - Anos 40 - ICMbio

A partir da década de 1960, após a transferência da capital federal para Brasília, o parque enfrentou um período de decadência, com escassez de recursos para manutenção e depreciação da estrutura. Neste período foram perdidos os abrigos e várias residências funcionais.

Foto do Abrigo 4 (Pedra do Sino ) Destroços do avião 1952 - Parque da Serra dos Órgãos - ICMBio

A partir de 1980, foi iniciado um esforço para reerguer o parque, incluindo a publicação do Plano de Manejo, o decreto de definição delimites e compra de terras para regularização da situação fundiária.

A década de 1990 foi um período de recuperação da estrutura física, com restauração dos prédios antigos, construção do Centro de Operações, Casa do Montanhista, transformação do Abrigo Paquequer na Pousada Refúgio do Parque, implantação do auditório “O Guarani” e do Centro de Visitantes.

Foto histórica da piscina natural do Parque da Serra dos Órgãos - Decada de 40 - ICMBio

O início do século XXI é de desafios na área de conservação e manejo do parque. O Parque vem consolidando sua posição de referência nacional em gestão da pesquisa científica e inicia estudos para ampliação do parque e atualização do Plano de Manejo.

Na área do ecoturismo, também se destaca a Serra do Subaio, onde estão localizados diversos atrativos rurais do município, que são as várias trilhas, montanhas e cachoeiras, como a Mulher de Pedra, que se destaca por se assemelhar à figura de uma mulher deitada. Além do Subaio, destacam-se também as Torres de Bonsucesso, localizadas no bairro de Bonsucesso, terceiro distrito da cidade; o Orquidário Aranda, fundado em 1985 no bairro de Quebra-Frascos, onde é exposta e comercializada uma grande variedade de orquídeas, entre espécies e híbridos; o circuito Tere- Friburgo (como é conhecida a RJ-130), uma rodovia com 67 quilômetros de extensão, servindo como um grande corredor turístico da região, onde podem ser encontradas diversas belas e aconchegantes pousadas e hotéis-fazenda.

Foto dos Três Picos de Salinas - Circuito Tere-Fiburgo - Divulgação - @aclubtour -

Através dela, tem-se acesso aos Três Picos de Salinas, importante monumento natural do Parque Estadual dos Três Picos; e a Pedra da Tartaruga, uma formação rochosa similar a uma tartaruga, local ideal para a prática de rapel e de encontro entre jipeiros.

Na próxima edição falaremos dos pontos turísticos da bela cidade de Teresa e das festividades Natalinas. Não percam!

Foto do Pico Dedo de Deus e da Estatua da Imperatriz Teresa Cristina - Divulgação - @aclubtour

Fontes:

@aclubtour
Arquivo Nacional
IBGE
ICMBio
IPHAN

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76 Comentários

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