Rodolfo Abreu: Bolo-Rei, a tradição portuguesa de início de ano

Bolo Rei – Tradição de início de ano

Rodolfo Abreu: Bolo-Rei, a tradição portuguesa de início de ano

Bolo Rei - Tradição de início de ano

As famílias portuguesas tem uma tradição cultural e gastronômica deliciosa para o início do ano: O Bolo-Rei – também conhecido como Bolo de Reis ou Rosca de Reis. É um bolo festivo em forma de coroa, que alude ao dia 6 de janeiro, Dia de Reis – o dia na tradição católica em que os três reis magos chegam para visitar o menino Jesus, trazendo presentes.

De forma redonda, com grande buraco no centro, é feito de uma massa branca e fofa misturada com passas, frutos secos e frutas cristalizadas. Antigamente, no interior do bolo, encontrava-se também uma fava seca e um pequeno brinde, normalmente feito de metal (uma medalha de santo ou um pequeno menino Jesus). Quem encontrasse uma fava na fatia que comesse, teria o dever de pagar o próximo bolo-rei. Por outro lado, quem encontrasse o brinde de metal, a pessoa seria brindada com “boa sorte”. Com o tempo, as regras foram mudando – algumas vezes somente o brinde era escondido na massa e assim, a boa sorte viria aquém o encontrasse em sua fatia, mas também deveria oferecer o Bolo-Rei no próximo ano.

A origem

No tempo dos festejos romanos de Saturnália, havia o hábito de eleger o “rei da festa” durante os banquetes comemorativos, o que era feito colocando uma fava seca (símbolo da fecundidade) numa doce torta redonda, que quem achasse se convertia no rei da fava ou rei da festa. A Igreja Católica aproveitou o fato daquele jogo pagão ser característico do mês de dezembro e decidiu reconvertê-lo e relacioná-lo com a Natividade e com uma Epifania (a primeira das quais ficou conhecida como Dia de Reis), ou seja, com os dias 25 de Dezembro e 6 de Janeiro.

O bolo de reis no seu formato atual surgiu na corte de Luís XIV, em França, para as festas do Ano Novo e do Dia de Reis. Vários escritores da época escreveram sobre esta iguaria, até mesmo Jean-Baptiste Greuz e a celebrou num famoso quadro com o nome Gâteau des rois.

Le Gâteau des rois - Jean-Baptiste Greuze

Em Portugal

O Bolo-Rei popularizado em Portugal no século XIX segue uma receita originária do sul de Loire, um bolo em forma de coroa feito de massa leveda. Tanto quanto se sabe, a primeira casa onde se vendeu em Portugal foi a Confeitaria Nacional, em Lisboa, por volta de 1869-1870. O responsável foi o afamado confeiteiro francês Gregoire (Gregório, como ficou conhecido), recrutado em Paris por Baltasar Rodrigues Castanheiro Júnior, que adaptaram e utilizaram uma receita trazida da capital francesa. Aos poucos, outras confeitarias da cidade passaram também a fabricar o bolo-rei, originando assim várias versões diferentes. No Porto, o bolo-rei foi introduzido em 1890, por iniciativa da Confeitaria Cascais, segundo uma receita que o proprietário, Francisco Júlio Cascais, também trouxera de Paris. As receitas cruzariam mais tarde o Atlântico para chegarem ao Brasil onde similarmente virou tradição.

A tradição do Bolo-Rei, Bolo de Reis ou Rosca de Reis

No Brasil

Muito popular nas famílias de origem portuguesa, é possível produzir o Bolo-Rei ou Bolo de Reis em casa, através das várias receitas disponíveis na internet.

Porém também é possível encomendar nas casas de origem portuguesa e confeitarias especializadas. No Rio de Janeiro, temos algumas das mais tradicionais produtoras de Bolo-Rei:

Casa Cavé
Rua 7 de setembro, 133 – Centro. (21) 2224-2520 / 2222-2358 / 98712-2391

Confeitaria Colombo
Rua Gonçalves Dias, 32 – Centro (21) 2505-1500

Padaria Rio-Lisboa
Av. Ataulfo de Paiva, 1300 – Leblon (21) 2294-4860

Fontes:

– Matias, Luis. «Bolo Rei | Chef Mário Rolando». Associação Cozinheiros Profissionais Portugal.
– «Sítio da Câmara Municipal de Lisboa: Bolo-Rei». webcache.googleusercontent.com.

#tradição #lusobrasilidade #portugal #brasil #frança #culinária #gastronomia #volo #bolo-rei #bolodereis #doce #sobremesa #cultura #arte #alimentação #anonovo

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